By request to TACIS (Technical Aid to the Commonwealth of Independent States) Team dated May, 25th 1994, Rosenergoatom asked for a study concerning the considered implementation of centralised Access Control Systems on Russian nuclear plants. This study had to be applied on the two sites of Balakovo and Smolens nuclear power plants, considered as prototypes for all VVER and RBMK nuclear stations.
A lot of efforts are already spent to improve the safety of the operation of these power plants, but it is also absolutely necessary to take care of the security of the nuclear sites to avoid malevolent actions from individuals or groups. As a matter of fact, these actions could prove highly detrimental in terms of psychological reaction from the local and foreign populations and obviously in terms of nuclear pollution if vital parts of the power plants would be damaged.
This project is Phase 1 of a larger overall project entitled “Physical Protection Systems”, which was planned to be completed in three main phases:
Phase 1: Specifying the basic principles and drawing up terms of reference for detailed study.
Phase 2: Specifying the system and drawing up functional analysis, basic design and procurement procedures.
Phase 3: Procurement and implementation of the system in Russia, initially at Balakovo and Smolensk nuclear power plants but with the capability of being implemented at other sites in Russia.
The present “Phase 1 – project” entitled “preliminary study of Access Control Systems for Smolensk and Balakovo NPP” included a preliminary audit of the existing installations and defined general principles according to which new Access Control Systems could be designed.
The purpose of this project was the upgrading and the implementation of an enhanced modern Physical Protection System, aimed at improving nuclear plants security by reducing as much as possible malevolent actions and subsequent consequences.
The proposed system was based on different levels as follows:
Installation of modern and efficient video system.
Installation of modern and automatic access control system.
Installation of a modern radio-telecommunication system.
Installation of a modern explosive detection system (including plastic).
Employment of a staff highly specialized and trained to use the security equipment and to react wisely and efficiently to all crisis situations to be encountered in a plant life.
Each of the above mentioned systems, fed with the appropriate information and data, had to interact and communicate interactively with the others according to defined procedures, in order to maximize the effectiveness of recovery measures and to support the decision making process.
Phase 1 included:
Specifying the basic principles of the System.
Drawing up terms of reference for detailed study.
More specifically, the purpose of Phase 1 was to carry out a preliminary study, so as to define and fully specify a Physical Protection system applicable to Balakovo and Smolensk NPP’s which will be considered as the prototypes for all VVER and RBMK power stations.
Also during the first phase of the project, the same project team would be required to investigate and create liaisons with all EU companies who had experience in this type of activity.
In this way, the system would be based on modern and reliable technology.
This first stage ended with the preparation of a specification for the following stage (entitled “Access Control Systems for Smolensk and Balakovo NPP. Supplement Study Phase 2” - Aidco Contract Number: 23884) stipulating the objectives of the upgrading works.
This work was of short duration. It was conducted by physical protection’s experts.
Technically the output of Phase 1 was sufficient and the subject handled deep enough.